Rita Dove has done us a great service by painstakingly digging up this forgotten history. Like most people, I had never heard of Bridgetower before Sonata Mulattica popped up in a random google search. What a fascinating story! I imagine it was not only challenging, but exciting to imaginatively fill in the blanks of this discarded musicians unique experience. I would like to know more about his parents. How they met, how an interracial relationship was received in Poland circa 1780, if he considered himself a mulatto or if there was a one-drop kind of mentality. I guess I’ll have to read the book to find out what insight Dove’s years of research led her to deduce about those race issues.
More than her standing as former US Poet Laureate, Pulitzer Prize winner, and Possibility Poet it is Dove’s own family that (in my opinion) makes her a perfect and trustworthy candidate to bring us this story:
Rita Dove and her husband Fred Viebahn, with their newborn daughter, Aviva, in Tempe, Arizona, January, 1983.(© Fred Viebahn)
Rita Dove’s gorgeously engaging ‘Sonata Mulattica’ weaves the narrative of a black virtuoso all but erased from musical history.
By: Teresa Wiltz
Via: The Root
Way, way back in the day, there was an Afro-Polish violinist, a biracial child prodigy of such virtuosity that even Beethoven felt compelled to dedicate a sonata to him. There were honors and accolades and patronage from a prince.
But fortunes changed, as poet laureate Rita Dove describes in her novel-sized book of poems, Sonata Mulattica: A Life in Five Movements and a Short Play. The violinist, George Augustus Polgreen Bridgetower, and his composer, Ludwig van Beethoven, performed the sonata together to thunderous acclaim.
The goodwill between them evaporated as the two quarreled over a woman. Beethoven furiously erased Bridgetower’s name and scribbled the name of another violinist when he dedicated the sonata.
That is how the “Sonata Mulattica” became the “Kreutzer Sonata,” one of Beethoven’s most famous works. Through that one fit of jealous retribution, Beethoven wrote Bridgetower out of history.
The Polish black virtuoso, once famous, now forgotten.
This bright-skinned papa’s boy
could have sailed his 15-minute fame
straight into the record books.
Dove first heard about Bridgetower years ago, when she was a musician studying the cello, and later, opera. It wasn’t until she saw Immortal Beloved, a film about Beethoven, that it triggered her memory. Fascinated with the thought of a mixed- race musician in 19th century Europe—“I thought there was more to it than this exotic creature who played the violin”—Dove set out to find out more about him. For five years, she researched and wrote, digging up little nuggets along the way, tucked in letters and diaries, like that of court lady Charlotte Papendiek, and in what little historical accounts she could find.
“It was like tracking the coordinates of some meteor,” Dove says. “ ‘Oh, he went there; he appeared here,’ mapping the trajectory of his life. Other than that, he was a blank slate.”
A blank slate onto which she poured all her imagination and musings about race and class and sexual competition. Bridgetower, the son of a self-proclaimed “African prince” and a Polish-German woman, was born in Poland in 1780. As it happened, his father, who was a bit of an operator, was working in the castle of the Hungarian Prince Esterházy, where Joseph Haydn worked as a musical director.
Even as a very young child, Bridgetower dazzled on the violin; Haydn took him under his wing. Later, Bridgetower traveled from Vienna to London, where he attracted the attention of the Prince of Wales, who would later become Kind George IV. His was a life of comfort, adulation and high achievement. (He eventually received a degree from Cambridge University.)
Bridgetower, George Augustus Polgreen, 1780-1860. His passport, obtained in Dresden, 27 July 1803, portrayed him as being of average height, beardless with dark brown hair and eyes, with a broad nose and swarthy complexion. Friends added that he was melancholic and discontent.
At the time, there were a good number of free blacks living in London, says Dove, who won the Pulitzer Prize in 1987. Some were Africans who’d never been enslaved; some were slaves who’d been freed. Class, rather than race, circumscribed one’s lot. So for a black boy with a knack for playing the violin, a child prodigy with a powerful patron, life was considerably sweeter than that of, say, Black Pearl, the young black servant in Dove’s book.
Pathological hit of the day: n****r on a golden chain.
Metaphorically, that is. The African
valet, the maidservant black
as aces in a hole….
Sonata Mulattica is a gorgeously engaging read, utilizing a mix of poetic styles, from nursery rhymes to free verse, until the narrative arc sweeps into the big confrontation between Bridgetower and Beethoven. At that point, the action shifts from poem to play, a play with a distinctly vaudevillian sensibility, complete with baudy references to Othello. Bridgetower becomes a rapping, preening braggadocio:
But I’m a natural man, born under a magical caul,
I’m that last plump raisin in the cereal bowl;
I’m the gravy you lick from your mashed potatoes,
I’m creamier than chocolate, juicier than ripe tomatoes!
But Beethoven soon brings him down to size:
Now you will taste the high price
Of my affection—“Mulatto Sonata,” indeed!
I would sooner dedicate my music
To a barnyard mule
If the two men had not quarreled, two egos run amok, would musical history have been different? Would, we find, as Dove writes, “rafts of black kids scratching out scales on their matchbox violins so that some day/they might play the impossible:/ Beethoven’s Sonata No. 9 in A Major, Op. 47/Also known as The Bridgetower”?
We will, of course, never know. Still, it’s nice to imagine the possibilities of what could have and should have been.
Teresa Wiltz is The Root’s senior culture writer.
Hello. My name is Timothy Holley, and I have come to this blogpost so terribly late but nevertheless appreciate the tribute to Rita Dove’s “Sonata mulattica”. I am an Africa-American cellist and music scholar, and was engaged in my own research on the story behind the “Kreutzer” sonata of Beethoven and Bridgetower. I’ve wrote a paper at the same same her book of poetry was being published. I’m quite pleased to find that our sources led us to similar conclusions, but I still have further questions whose answers may still be documented somewhere. Of course, in the ensuing six years I’ve been revising and updating my paper!! The preliminary updates you’ll be able to find on my blog “A View From The Scroll”, http://www.blogger.com (Dr. Holley’s blogs). FYI, I am looking at George’s brother and cellist Friedrich, who lived with his mother in Dresden and concertized with George on numerous occasions (some documented in the papers and memoirs of the time). I’m also trying to locate archival sources which might provide more information on how John Frederick Augustus Bridgetower and Maria Anna Sovinki met and married, as well as the length of their family time together. Ultimately I’m interested in finding information that will bring Friedrich “ex umbra Giorgio” (“out from the shadows of George, who may have been treated with preference to Friedrich in their early childhood years).
I’ll finish reading Rita’s book in the meantime!!